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Zoe Allen

Finance professional with extensive experience in Anti-Money Laundering (AML)



Published Date

November 7, 2023


Blog / Hong Kong’s JPEX Fraud: Regulatory Delays in Detecting Massive Crypto Fraud | AML Watcher

13 min Read

Hong Kong’s JPEX Fraud: Regulatory Delays in Detecting Massive Crypto Fraud | AML Watcher

JPEX, once a prominent cryptocurrency exchange in Hong Kong, quietly conducted its operations without a license in Hong Kong’s financial hub. This massive crypto scandal has escalated to HK$1.2 billion (US$154 million), impacting over 1,600 investors. Much like other exchanges, it lured customers with promises of trading various digital assets, from Bitcoin to Ethereum. From 2020 to 2023, it managed to slip under the regulatory radar.

Through dubious compliance claims and influencer-driven marketing campaigns, JPEX portrayed itself as a legitimate platform. However, beneath this veneer lay unregulated, deceptive practices, causing substantial financial harm to its investors. These actions, collectively, led to significant financial losses and raised numerous concerns about investor protection, regulatory enforcement, and the role of marketing influencers in the world of cryptocurrency.

JPEX official logo

Operational Unlicensed:

The Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission (SFC) played a pivotal role in uncovering the fraudulent activities of JPEX. On September 13, 2023, the SFC took the unprecedented step of issuing a public warning against JPEX. This warning explicitly highlighted JPEX’s unlicensed status for cryptocurrency trading activities in Hong Kong.

In this context, it’s essential to understand that operating a cryptocurrency exchange without the requisite license was a direct breach of Hong Kong’s regulatory framework. The licensing system was established to provide oversight, ensuring that cryptocurrency exchanges complied with legal standards and could be held accountable in the event of any issues. Despite this stern warning, JPEX continued to operate without the necessary license.

Press conference by the Singapore Police Force (SFP)

A press conference on an arrest operation combating conspiracy to defraud. Photo: Sam Tsang

False Compliance Claims:

One of the most alarming aspects of the JPEX scandal was the platform’s deceptive claims regarding its compliance with local cryptocurrency regulations. The SFC, as Hong Kong’s financial regulator, had established a framework of rules and requirements designed to ensure that cryptocurrency exchanges adhered to specific standards. In this context, obtaining a cryptocurrency trading platform license in Hong Kong was a mandatory step for any exchange wishing to operate legally. JPEX, however, was alleged to have made false claims about having initiated the licensing process.

This was a crucial aspect of the scandal, as it directly affected investor trust. By suggesting that they were in the process of obtaining a license, JPEX falsely implied a level of oversight and legitimacy that they did not possess. These claims amounted to a breach of trust and had the potential to mislead investors into believing that they were engaging with a legally compliant and secure platform, which, in reality, was far from the truth.

Misleading Advertising:

To compound the situation, JPEX engaged in aggressive marketing tactics, amplifying the extent of investor deception. The platform’s marketing strategies extended well beyond mere digital promotions. JPEX leveraged the credibility of social media influencers and key opinion leaders to promote its services. Many of these influencers have vast followings and considerable persuasive power over their audiences.

In the realm of cryptocurrency, where complexity and risk are inherent, such promotions can carry significant weight. Unfortunately, many of these influencers may not have possessed a deep understanding of the products and services they were endorsing, leading to a dissemination of incomplete or even misleading information. The influence these endorsements carried exacerbated the platform’s fraudulent activities.

The misleading impression created by this marketing campaign was one of a reputable and trustworthy cryptocurrency exchange, attracting an even broader audience, including those with minimal experience in the crypto space. As a result, these individuals, seeking higher financial returns, may have been convinced to invest in JPEX without fully grasping the associated risks.

Police escort Joseph Lam from the Entertainment Building in Central on Monday. Photo: Handout

Police escort Joseph Lam

There are some potential regulatory gaps within Hong Kong’s framework that could have contributed to the JPEX fraud. These gaps are common issues in many jurisdictions dealing with the rapidly evolving cryptocurrency and virtual asset sector. Here are some regulatory loopholes or weaknesses to consider:

Licensing Process:

The licensing process for cryptocurrency exchanges in Hong Kong appears to lack stringent criteria and clear guidelines. A robust licensing process is crucial to ensure that only trustworthy and capable entities can operate as virtual asset service providers. Without clearly defined standards, it becomes easier for unscrupulous operators to enter the market.

Regulatory authorities should establish comprehensive criteria that entities must meet to obtain a license, covering areas like financial stability, cybersecurity measures, and compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) regulations. Furthermore, the licensing process should undergo regular reviews and updates to adapt to the evolving nature of the virtual asset market.


The gap in enforcement of existing regulations can have severe consequences. It’s essential for regulatory authorities to proactively monitor and investigate virtual asset activities. The unclear operation of JPEX without a license for an extended period indicates a lack of early detection capabilities. Regulatory authorities should invest in technologies and strategies that enable them to detect unlicensed operations promptly. Moreover, cooperation with law enforcement agencies is critical. Joint efforts can lead to swifter actions against non-compliant entities and provide a stronger deterrent against unlawful activities in the virtual asset market.

Regulatory Gaps:

The case has exposed the regulatory loopholes, the lack of investor protection in Hong Kong’s nascent crypto industry, and the risks of relying on social media influencers to promote unlicensed platforms. The SFC revealed that it had issued a warning letter to JPEX in June 2023, asking it to cease its activities in Hong Kong or apply for a license. However, JPEX ignored the letter and continued to operate illegally. The SFC also said it had no jurisdiction over JPEX’s operations in Dubai, where it was registered.

The case has sparked public outrage and raised questions about Hong Kong’s regulatory framework for crypto assets. Hong Kong has been trying to position itself as a global hub for innovation and technology, especially after introducing the national security law in 2020 that eroded its autonomy and freedoms.

In November 2020, the SFC announced a new licensing regime for virtual asset trading platforms to enhance investor protection and combat money laundering. The regime only took effect in June 2023, leaving a gap of more than six months for unregulated platforms like JPEX.

Influencer Marketing:

Influencer marketing has become a powerful tool in promoting virtual asset platforms. However, there’s often a lack of clear regulatory guidance in this area. To close this gap, authorities can establish rules governing influencer endorsements in the virtual asset space. This may include requiring influencers to clearly disclose their affiliations and financial interests in the entities they promote.

Additionally, they should provide education to influencers about the risks and regulatory obligations associated with virtual assets. Ensuring that influencer marketing aligns with regulatory standards can help prevent the dissemination of incomplete or misleading information that can deceive investors.

Investor Education:

A potential gap in investor education is apparent. Many investors, particularly inexperienced ones, may lack a solid understanding of virtual assets’ complexities and risks. To bridge this gap, regulatory authorities, in collaboration with industry stakeholders, should create accessible and comprehensible educational resources about virtual assets.

These resources should cover fundamental concepts, risk factors, and regulatory requirements. Such initiatives should cater to investors with varying levels of knowledge, empowering them to make informed decisions and reduce their vulnerability to fraudulent schemes.

Cross-Border Issues:

The cross-border nature of virtual asset activities presents significant challenges to enforcement. Regulatory authorities in Hong Kong must recognize the global aspect of the virtual asset market. Collaborating with international regulators and law enforcement agencies is essential to address cross-border challenges effectively.

International cooperation can help track and investigate fraudulent activities that extend beyond national boundaries. Regulators need to establish clear frameworks for sharing information and evidence related to virtual asset-related crimes to ensure a coordinated response.

Response Time:

Timeliness and responsiveness of enforcement actions are critical, especially when Hong Kong is positioning itself as a global hub for virtual assets. Regulatory bodies must demonstrate their commitment to maintaining a safe and secure virtual asset market. This involves taking swift and decisive action against entities that violate regulations.

Moreover, regulatory authorities should enhance the regulatory framework, including clarifying regulatory requirements, imposing stricter penalties for non-compliance, and enhancing consumer protection measures. Promoting transparency, accountability, and accountability in the virtual asset sector is also crucial to instill public and investor confidence.

Summing Up

The implosion of JPEX, which could also turn out to be the largest financial fraud in the city’s history, has rung alarm bells among local retail investors, creating near-term challenges for virtual asset companies banking on the government’s push to expand the sector, according to industry players and analysts.

This scandal has reportedly entangled at least 2,305 victims involving about HK$1.43 billion (US$182 million) of investments. This is a heavy blow to public trust in cryptocurrencies, casting a shadow over Hong Kong’s ambitions to become a global virtual asset hub.

The JPEX scandal highlights factors including investor knowledge gaps, aggressive marketing tactics, regulatory loopholes, rapid market growth, delayed enforcement, and issues with influencer marketing. Addressing these root causes is undeniably important for a robust regulatory framework, protecting investor interests, and fostering a secure virtual asset market in Hong Kong.

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